6 Roundtable Discussion on Climate Summit last december's climate Summit in copenhagen attracted severe criticism. it also failed to achieve any formal agreement on worldwide action to combat climate change. in this roundtable discussion, we asked five colleagues the following question: what can we, as tu delft, do to help solve the climate issue? We also put the question to colleagues from other faculties. Lessons to be learned from the 'World Climate Exercise' Dr Erik Pruyt The Climate Summit wrestled with issues of considerable complexity and some key dilemmas. The climate issue itself is extremely complex and difficult to define. Any solutions devised to combat it are further hampered by feedback effects and the sluggishness of social processes: even if parts of the population do decide to abandon their cars, others may use theirs more often because there is less congestion. The ethical issue should also not be underestimated. This is because in the long term even emissions from the least developed countries will present problems. This situation calls for rigorous policy at various levels. Finally, the very format of the climate negotiations is flawed: more than 15,000 people were involved in the negotiations in Copenhagen. During the climate summit in Copenhagen, I recreated these climate negotiations with around forty TPM students by using the 'World Climate Exercise'. In this highly serious game, which is both fun as well as educational and lasts about half a day, participants are divided into three groups, representing the developed, developing and least developed countries. After each round of negotiations, the groups have to make pledges about their future emissions. A system dynamics simulation model then calculates the long-term consequences at global level and presents these in the form of a graph. The first round is generally quite tricky and three rounds are usually required in order to realise sufficient reductions in emissions. Even within the groups themselves, it is difficult to reach agreement and the same can certainly be said about negotiating with other groups. This was just with forty players rather than 15,000! At TPM, the developed countries were prepared to make serious reductions. The others were much less willing as they did not see themselves as the cause of the problem. Three rounds of negotiations were required for students to eventually realise how important it is for effective action to be taken now. This is because the effects do not become clear until the longer term and significant reductions in emissions cannot be achieved rapidly, all of which makes the climate issue extremely urgent. I have played the game before in the united States with 120 climate-conscious academics and even we struggled to make progress. The World Climate Exercise has been played in several places across the world, including the European Environment Agency and the Environmental Protection Agency. It is a great way of experiencing the complexity of the climate issue and the negotiations and you learn a lot in the process. But it is not enough; you also need to conduct research into concrete changes at subsystem level. At Tu Delft, it is primarily the technicians and policy analysts who focus on issues at this level. For example, we do a lot of research on energy systems and processes of social change and are therefore making a significant contribution to identifying solutions to the climate issue. Dr Erik Pruyt (1977) is a lecturer in Policy Analysis at TU Delft's TPM faculty. His research interests are System Dynamics, Multicriteria Decision Analysis, Ethics, Climate Change, Energy System Transitions, with a particular focus on electricity systems, Wind and Biomass Energy, Uncertainties and Risks and National Security. Invest in young people Prof. Wubbo Ockels When you view the Earth from space, it really is baffling that we are taking such risks with our atmosphere. The Netherlands should be leading the way in Europe when it comes to combating climate change. We need to accept that our children and grandchildren have a right to a sustainable future. I believe that clear and effective legislation makes a real difference, but our government lacks the required expertise and is unable to define a clear course. The European Parliament even admits that it does not know which climate statistics are actually correct. Minister Cramer of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment (VROM) says much the same. The Netherlands is drifting: there is no longer any respect for true expertise and people no longer have the capacity needed to make the right choices. Contrary to what many people often think, effective management requires substance, especially when it comes to sustainability. It is time for the government to adopt an evidence-based approach. This is what we do in technology and medical science: you build a bridge or aircraft solely on the basis of the best available information on efficiency and effectiveness. Tu Delft is capable of playing a central role in this. We can train civil servants so that they understand the substance of what they're talking about. The universities should serve as an independent source of reference on knowledge and technology for government. As a university, our focus is on youth. This is an important target group, since young people are our future. The government would do well to invest more in young people and in education and less in 'vested interests'. Building something in a university environment costs 100 times less than it does in the business world. I believe that there should be a law dictating that 10% of all innovation funding goes to young people. A single euro spent on young people is actually worth 10! There have been countless successful student projects within Tu Delft. Take the Nuna solar car for example, an exceptionally fast car propelled only by the sun. Or the Superbus, an electrically propelled means of transport that brings together the advantages of a high-speed train with the flexibility of a car. Both of these are sustainable and CO2 friendly, because they are driven by solar energy and wind power respectively. There is also more we can do within Tu Delft itself, such as organising internal conferences. There is plenty of long distance interaction, for example at a conference in Hong Kong, but nothing close to home. Aerodynamics, mechanical systems, electric systems . we need to share the depth and breadth of each other's knowledge. Prof. W.J. Ockels (1946) is professor in Aerospace Sustainable Engineering and Technology (ASSET) at TU Delft's faculty of Aerospace Engineering. He focuses on the development of objects for propulsion or the generation of renewable energy, including the Nuna solar car and the Superbus. He previously worked as the head of the Education Office at the European Space Association (ESA).
7 Roundtable Discussion on Climate Summit We are committed to underground CO 2 -storage Prof. Rob Arts From my dual position at TNO and Tu Delft, I try to find practical applications for fundamental research. One of the key focuses of my research is underground CO 2 storage or Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). It's a simple principle: the CO 2 is captured from large power plants and stored underground rather than being released into the air. In terms of solutions for tackling the greenhouse effect, this is the third option in the Netherlands, after energy conservation and renewable energy. Last year saw the launch of a major national research programme CATO 2, which is a Dutch acronym for CO 2 Capture, Transport and Storage. Tu Delft and TNO are two of the major research partners involved in the programme. We are the scientific brains behind the concept, always in search of further improvements. For example, we conduct ancillary research in demonstration projects in the Netherlands, such as the one in Barendrecht. In my TNO capacity, I am closely involved in major CCS demonstration projects in Europe and beyond , including Sleipner in Norway and Insalah in Algeria. Both of these have the capacity to store approximately one million litres tonnes of CO 2 per year, for fourteen and six years respectively. I am also the chairman of CO 2 Geonet, a European network of research institutes from seven countries. As an organisation, we try to provide direction for the research in different countries. For us, Copenhagen proved disappointing. CO 2 storage was discussed, but was not included as part of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The Kyoto protocol offers rich industrialised countries the opportunity to fund emission reduction projects within developing countries where it is possible to achieve more in terms of the environment. In exchange for this, the results count towards national emission reduction targets. CCS is perfect for this, but the idea has been met with some resistance from various countries. This makes it difficult to make a success of CCS, because ultimately it requires funding. The European union does have one clear target: it aims to achieve a 20% reduction in emissions by 2020. This is to be achieved through energy conservation and sustainability, but also by using CCS. The aim is to have six major demonstration projects by 2015, covering the entire process: capture, transport and underground storage. The Netherlands intends to play host to one of these major CCS projects. It is possible that a power plant on the Maas plain will be used for capture and an offshore gas field for storage. It is of course widely accepted that CCS is a transitional measure. It is also not the preferred option, which is renewable or sustainable energy. But CCS is also sustainable to a certain extent. Our society is heavily dependent on fossil fuels. Switching to renewable alternatives on the scale required will not be possible in the first 50 to 100 years. However, CO 2 storage can be implemented on a large scale in the shorter term. During this transitional period, we can dispose of the excess CO 2 underground rather than releasing it into the air. Prof. Rob Arts (1965) is part-time professor in Integrated time lapse methods/Geotechnology, Applied Geophysics and Petrophysics in TU Delft's faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences. He also works as technology manager for 'geocharacterisation' at TNO Bouw en Ondegrond in Utrecht. It is time for a new industrial revolution Dr Wim Ravesteijn Fossil fuels are essential for modern society to function effectively. Not only as a source of energy, but also as the basis for the petrochemicals industry. We live in a high energy use, high consumption society and with no simple alternative to fossil fuels. So Tu Delft faces a major challenge when it comes to reducing CO 2 emissions. It is time for a new industrial revolution. We need to be much more efficient in the use of fossil fuels and other natural resources. This calls for new technology, including new design concepts such as whole system design, cradle to cradle and biomimicry. To draw an historical parallel, during the first industrial revolution in Britain, labour productivity in the textile industry for example increased by a factor of 100. We need to achieve the same for our natural resources. Technological innovations are only possible within an institutional framework that is also innovative, such as common pool resource management and ecosystem companies. A service-oriented business model is also required: a way of doing business that focuses on the service provided rather than on the product sold. This would mean that a carpet company would no longer be selling carpet but rather providing a floor covering service. By comparison, steam machinery was required for the first industrial revolution, but no one was willing to invest in it. This machinery only became a success following the introduction of the innovative concept of leasing. There also needs to be a change in society's values. Take, for example, the natural world, which gives us so much free of charge: Forests provide wood, but also attract rain, collecting water and preventing flooding, etc. Currently, people take absolutely no account of these ecosystem services, but the natural world must become a key factor in determining behaviour. This kind of value shift is necessary to achieve the transition from product sales to service provision but also for example in terms of our supposed right to freedom of movement. Tu Delft has contributions to make in multiple areas, both in mitigating the effects of climate change and the other necessary adaptations. Most importantly, these will come in the form of research. As a knowledge institution, we can also play a significant role in promoting sustainable development in the region. There is also work to be done in terms of technology transfer to poorer countries and the exchange of technical knowledge with rapidly developing countries. For example, we have much to learn from a country like China. Our section excels in developing strategies and visions relating to sustainable technology development projects, in which we focus on socio-technical system innovation, stakeholder input, interactive learning processes and niche development, also in a non-Western context. Looking to the engineers of the future, increasing professionalism will be the key to success: it is essential that they do not become part of the problem, but rather the solution. We are providing the education to achieve that. We are equipping them with competencies in sustainability and ensuring that they can not only all become entrepreneurs but also architects capable of establishing and fostering innovation systems. Dr Wim Ravesteijn (1954) is a social scientist and technical historian. He works as associate professor and leader of the research group in Technological Dynamics and Sustainable Development at TPM. He focuses on technological development from an historical and international perspective, and specialises in his research on water systems. Sustainable electricity and adaptation Prof. Ernst ten Heuvelhof In order to reduce CO 2 emissions, we need to lower our consumption of fossil fuels and create space for energy conservation and sustainably generated electricity. The development of smart grids can help achieve this since they make all kinds of interesting innovation possible. For example, they can enable the user to see the current price of electricity. If the price is high, he or she can opt to switch off the appliance or to switch it on if the price is low. This process of peak shaving could result in significant savings. Smart grids also make it more attractive for households and companies to generate their own electricity, for example by using solar cells and wind turbines. This not only provides power for the producers themselves, but they can also send the power back into the smart grid in exchange for payment. Another highly promising development is the emergence of the electric vehicle. Providing that the electricity for these vehicles has been generated sustainably, this can also achieve a significant reduction in CO 2 . But there are also problems in this area. Sustainably generated electricity in the Netherlands will to a large extent originate from large offshore wind parks. These deliver power intermittently, depending on the weather. On the other hand, the demand for power will increase significantly as a result of the large-scale introduction of electric vehicles, which will in turn require additional production capacity. With smart grids electric car batteries could serve as temporary storage for sustainably generated energy. When there is little available or high demand, the power could be re-supplied from the batteries, of course in exchange for payment. Therefore, smart means that the power must go in both directions, data about the purchase and delivery must be recorded and payment must be made possible. These kinds of sustainable dreams are feasible as long as the networks are smart enough. The Smart Grids Taskforce, of which I am chairman, aims to achieve this. If the strategy of CO 2 targets fails, adaptation will be required. Here in the Netherlands, we will need to arm ourselves to ensure water security: protection against the sea and rivers and against the salinisation of underground water. Experts say that we will need to respond to three different developments: major drought interspersed with heavy rainfall as a result of climate change; the subsidence of most of the Netherlands and rising sea levels. The existing system of dyke management is inadequate to deal with this, so we need to create room for the rivers. This primarily relates to the Maas and the Rhine. The space required can be gained by moving the dykes inland and deepening the floodplains. Obstacles, such as disused brick factories and posts can also be removed from the rivers. It is also possible to create shortcuts and retention zones which can be used in cases of extremely high water levels. Between now and 2015 as many as forty such projects will be implemented. We are therefore also working hard on the adaptation scenario and as a member of the Room for the Rivers risk committee, I have the honour of making a contribution to this.' Prof. Ernst ten Heuvelhof (1954) is professor of Public Administration at the faculty of Technology, Policy and Management at TU Delft and at the faculty of Social Sciences at Erasmus University Rotterdam. He is also chairman of the Smart Grids Taskforce and a member of Room for the Rivers risk committee.